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Thick description in qualitative research

Thick Description is a term frequently used in qualitative undertakings to bring about detailed and diverse explanations of a situation, setting, time or people by considering all available and gathered information sources. The term also refers to the detailed account of field experiences in which the researcher makes explicit the patterns of cultural and social relationships and puts them in context. The extend to which the conclusions drawn are transferable to other times, settings. Thick description is a term used to characterize the process of paying attention to contextual detail in observing and interpreting social meaning when conducting qualitative research. For Geertz, doing anthropology means doing ethnography, which in turn means doing thick description Thick descripton refers to the detailed account of field experiences in which the researcher makes explicit the patterns of cultural and social relationships and puts them in context (Holloway, 1997). This can be contrasted with thin description, which is a superficial account

Thick Description in Qualitative Analysis Example

In the social sciences and related fields, a thick description is a description of human social action that describes not just physical behaviors, but their context as interpreted by the actors as well, so that it can be better understood by an outsider. A thick description typically adds a record of subjective explanations and meanings provided by the people engaged in the behaviors, making the collected data of greater value for studies by other social scientists thick description Transparent Qualitative Research: The Total Quality Framework Transparency Component The Total Quality Framework (TQF) * contributes to the conversation in the qualitative research community by providing researchers with a way to think about their qualitative designs - along with strategies or techniques - for the purpose of enhancing the quality of research outcomes This detail is called 'thick' or 'rich' description and is a strength of qualitative research. Narrative research is rife with the possibilities of 'thick' description as this approach weaves together a sequence of events, usually from just one or two individuals, in the hopes of creating a cohesive story, or narrative widely applicable approach that successfully combines qualitative 'thick' interpretations of local narratives with quantitative experimental methodology in order to discern and present behavioural patterns indicating food insecurity. Such an approach provides a potentially vita

Qualitative description is based on existing information, thoughtful connections to existing work in the field and the clinical experience of the research team (Neergaard, Olesen, Andersen, & Sondergaard, 2009). It is unique as its analytical objective is not thick description, theory generation, nor interpretative meaning of an incident or encounter Qualitative researchers can use thick description to show that the research study's findings can be applicable to other contexts, circumstances, and situations. Confirmability is the degree of neutrality in the research study's findings ' Thick description ' is the term that Geertz used to describe ethnography in one of the most famous and influential anthropology texts in the second half of the twentieth century, The Interpretation of Cultures (1973). The phrase was the title of the first essay in the volume of the collected essays, and Geertz explained at the time that he had written it to state his theoretical position as generally as he could. As a result, thick description has come to imply two different things: on. Thick description is a term used to characterize the process of paying attention to contextual detail in observing and interpreting social meaning when conducting qualitative research. A. Thick description is a way of writing that includes not only describing and observation (usually of human behaviour) but also the context in which that behaviour occurs. The term 'thick description' was made famous by anthropologist Clifford Geertz who wrote in this style as a way of capturing his brand of ethnography in the 1970s. Since then, 'thick description' has gradually taken hold in the social sciences, and today, it has become the way of writing qualitatively

What does Thick Description mean in qualitative research

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The term thick description is most closely associated with the anthropologist Clifford Geertz (and his work in Bali). Thick description can be defined as: the detailed accounts of a social setting or people's experiences that can form the basis for general statements about a culture and its significance (meaning) in people's lives Thick vs Thin Descriptions: The widespread goal of thick description in qualitative research is grounded in Geertz's (1973) ation ofadapt Ryle's philosophical work to argue that study of cultures is fundamentally an interpretive process that requires thick description of social behaviors, structures, and practices. Thick descriptionintegrates details of social interaction wit Qualitative researchers tout the distinctive character of their work as thickly descriptive of the subject matter. They evaluate published results in the same terms, giving high marks to the.. Qualitative Research Definition Qualitative research is a type of study that focuses on gathering and analyzing data that is natural and interpretive in nature. In other words, it looks for an in-depth understanding of the social aspect within its natural setting

Qualitative research is designed to explore the human elements of a given topic, while specific qualitative methods examine how individuals see and experien Thick description may sound familiar to those who have taken a methodology course that included a review of ethnography, and good for you for remembering that! It is actually a technique that ethnographic researchers use extensively, but it is a technique that other qualitative researchers can use as well. Specifically, thick description is a technique in which a qualitative researcher. High‐quality qualitative research includes a description of its analytic strategy and an analytic framework. In this, a rationale can be given for coding decisions, leading to the presentation of a coding scheme with clearly defined steps. The ability of the researcher to perform analysis that generates a theory or develops a novel conceptual framing also evidences sound qualitative research. The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples of use. Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the. Qualitative researchers use rich-thick description when they write their research reports. Unlike quantitative research where the researcher wished to generalize his or her findings beyond the sample from whom the data was drawn, qualitative researcher provide rich-thick descriptions for their readers and let their readers determine if the situation described in the qualitative study applies.

important part of qualitative research is to position yourself in the study by writing reflexively. I will cover this idea in Chapter 26. In short, there are several writing strategies in qualitative research that should become part of your approach to writing. Use Thick Description When You Write A description is rich if it provides abundant, interconnected details, and possibly. Thick description is a term used to characterize the process of paying attention to contextual detail in observing and interpreting social meaning when conducting qualitative research. A thick description of a social event or action takes into account not.

Thick Description - Qualitative Research Guidelines Projec

of this thick description that qualitative researchers demonstrate their from RESEARCH 101 at De La Salle Universit Thick descriptions provide concrete detail about a phenomenon or concept. They are a necessity for research in the field. They provide strong visual images for the reader to conceptualize the context or concept. An example of thick description is Thick Description •Way of summarizing and providing interpretation on a topic across multiple interviews •Describes an act and context surrounding that act •Provides social and cultural meaning •Describes how participants perceive act or concep

Thick description - Wikipedi

Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients', relatives' or professionals' experiences with a particular topic. Another great advantage of the method is that it is suitable if time or resources are limited Thick contextual description. With qualitative research, transferring the results of a study is ultimately the responsibility of the reader. 16 The reader, however, should not be alone in this endeavor, and this is where thick description comes into importance. The qualitative researcher has the challenging task of providing thick descriptions of the setting, subjects, and other persons involved, quotes, and other data compelling interpretation and synthesis to position the reader.

Trustworthiness is achieved by credibility, authenticity, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in qualitative research. To operationalize these terms, long engagement in the field and the triangulation of data sources, methods, and investigators to establish credibility. To confirm that the results are transferable between the researcher and those being studied, thick description is needed. In qualitative research, researchers look for dependability that the results. Maxwell, 1996; Merriam, 1998). Qualitative research-ers routinely employ member checking, triangulation, thick description, peer reviews, and external audits. Researchers engage in one or more of these proce-dures and report results in their investigations. As helpful as they are, these discussions about validity procedures provide little guidance as t Qualitative researchers have at their disposal an array of nonverbal behavior that can be collected that would yield thicker descriptions and interpretations compared to the sole use of verbal data. For example, Gorden's (1980) typology of nonverbal communication data comprised the following indicators: kinesics (i.e., behaviors reflected by body displacements and postures), proxemics (i.e.

qualitative researchers engage in at least two of them in any given study Unquestionably, procedures such as triangulating among different data sources (assuming that the investigator collects more.. Each article reproduced in this volume, edited by leading qualitative methodologists Lincoln and Denzin, represents one of these turning points in qualitative research, a revolution in the way..

Thick description. A key aspect of almost all qualitative research is the notion of thick description - a term that appears in just about every text book on the subject. However despite it's seeming importance, it's a notoriously difficult concept to define. There have been numerous attempts, as documented in Joseph Ponterotto's paper from 2006 (reference below) use of qualitative data analysis (QDA) software is becoming more and more immersed in qualitative research practices, thick analysis is now within reach of every researcher. Therefore, a different categorization of the numerous analysis methods is introduced, each of which is given a motto designed to pinpoint its main feature. The purpose of this exercise is to seduce researchers to thin

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Researcher credibility. Thick description. Transferability. Triangulation. Trustworthiness. Integrity in qualitative research is a critical issue for both those doing the research and those considering the use of qualitative evidence. PERSPECTIVES ON QUALITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH When composing your thick description of events, try to show rather than tell by using evocative language. Put another way, select words that help the reader see what is being described. Try to be as specific as possible by avoiding general or abstract words. Instead, use anecdotes, examples, descriptions, and quotations to mak Among qualitative researchers, this depth is often referred to as thick description (Geertz, 1973) [2]. Similarly, qualitative research can convey a sense of what it is actually like to be a member of a particular group or in a particular situation—what qualitative researchers often refer to as the lived experience of the research participants. Lindqvist and colleagues, for.

The origins, cross-disciplinary evolution, and definition of thick description are reviewed. Despite its frequent use in the qualitative literature, the concept of thick description is often confusing to researchers at all levels. The roots of this confusion are explored and examples of thick description are provided It is crucial that adequate thick description of the phenomenon under study is given to allow audience to have a proper understanding of it, thus enabling them to compare the instances of the phenomenon explained in the research document with those that they have seen emerge in their situations. Figure 1 - Definition of Transferabilit

thick description Research Design Revie

A study that contains thick descriptions can contribute to the body of evidence that helps you make judgments about implementing practice changes in your setting. Evaluating qualitative research presents unique challenges not encountered with quantitative research. However, thoughtful examination of qualitative studies can help ensure such. Qualitative research is not concerned with generalising, validity or reliability. Instead, trustworthiness of the research is crucial. Qualitative researchers are after rich, thick account of the voices of participants—the data must be rich in description of the people and places involved (Schurink 1998: 253).. Sampling, therefore, is not about representativeness of the population but.

What is Ethnography? :: Homepage of Brian A

There are some benefits of using qualitative research approaches and methods. Firstly, qualitative research approach produces the thick (detailed) description of participants' feelings, opinions, and experiences; and interprets the meanings of their actions (Denzin, 1989). In terms of language testing, for example, Bachma In qualitative research, there is no neat measure of significance, so getting a good sample size is more difficult. The literature often talks about reaching 'saturation point' - a term taken from physical science to represent a moment during the analysis of the data where the same themes are recurring, and no new insights are given by additional sources of data. Saturation is for example when no more water can be absorbed by a sponge, but it's not always the case in research that too. In general, qualitative researchers attempt to describe and interpret human behavior based primarily on the words of selected individuals [a.k.a., informants or respondents] and/or through the interpretation of their material culture or occupied space thick description (Sallee & Flood, 2012). It is an inductive approach that can help teachers get deep range of data in their classrooms and provide an ongoing, reiterative process of data generation, analysis, reflection, and action (Klehr, 2012). Qualitative research helps teachers understand their students through the students' eyes, take contexts students bounded with into account. As research on micro-systems moves forward, it will be important to transfer what has been learned from research on teams and organizations to new research that will be con- ducted on micro-systems. For example, research that will be helpful includes information about the different stages of development and maturity of the organization, creating the or- ganizational environment to support.

Qualitative Study - PubMe

• Qualitative researchers use 'thick description': they describe, analyse and interpret but also go beyond the constructions of the participants. • The relationship between the researcher and the researched is close and base 25 Ingredients to Thicken Description & Enrich Transparency in Ethnography 5 Online Group Discussions: Participants' Security & Identity Questions 7 Finding Connections & Making Sense of Qualitative Data 9 A Qualitative Approach to Survey Research Design: Shedding Light on Survey Responses 11 Helping Survey Data Line Up: Qualitative Lends a Hand 13 Working with Multiple Methods. Thick description is often invoked by qualitative researchers as a form of representation after analysis such as coding has been completed. I argue that thick description can be more productively considered as an aesthetic encounter guiding the research process from beginning to end. Drawing on the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer, I demonstrate that thick description is more.

PPT - What is Qualitative Research? PowerPoint

  1. Thick ethnographic description and thin models of complexity. Roger Gomm and Martyn Hammersley. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British Educational Research Association, University of Leeds, England, September 13-15, 2001 . Qualitative research and complexity. Qualitative researchers have emphasised complexity in reaction against two influential alternatives; on the one hand.
  2. g collected data as you go.this process will follow in a funnel-like design resulting in less data gathering in later phases of the study along with a congruent increase in analysis checking, verifying, and confir
  3. Qualitative Research: Rigour and qualitative research BMJ 1995; 311 doi: Thick Description, https://cecilebadenhorst.wordpress.co ← Research Culture in Pakistan: A Talk with Radio Pakistan [Punjabi] | Prof. Khalid Mahmood; Librarian Jobs in Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Center (PASTIC) → You May Also Like. learn how to conduct content analysis: research method.
  4. Qualitative and quantitative data can be regarded as thin descriptions. Both need an interpretative act to become thick descriptions (Love, 2013). This involves a broad range of research capacities, whereby a semantic graph addresses parts of it and creates a link between both paradigms by connecting the different data
  5. This kind of thick description of methods offers information as to how repeatable the research could be or how unique the situation is. Step wise Replication Approach . This approach should be included in the design of a qualitative research to improve dependability. Two research teams deal individually with data which have been split, and the results are contrasted. A crucial factor in.

Qualitative Description: A comprehensive summary of event

This assertion can be made because of the principal researcher's constant comparison of data and knowledge of the participant's voice, emotions and body language from the group discussion, as recorded in his field notes (Tuckett & Stewart, 2004) Thick descriptionThick description is proposed as advancing the claim for transferabiltiy of a qualitative study (Miles & Huberman 1994;Lincoln & Guba. Qualitative research is an approach to obtain a lot of in-depth information from people. The aim is to understand WHY people think and behave the way they do. Because we spend a lot of time with people to get this information we usually can only talk with a FEW people. Qualitative research is a form of social inquiry that focuses on the way people interpret and make sense of their experiences.

Qualitative research is primarily an exploratory research used to understand underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations and provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research Providing a thick description, a term popularised by GEERTZ in 1973, of the findings is therefore essential for promoting transferability (MORSE, 2015; POLIT & BECK, 2010). Dependability, comparable to the concept of reliability in quantitative studies, refers to the stability or consistency of the research processes used during the study (TOBIN & BEGLEY, 2004). Dependability is evaluated by.

qualitative analysis often require findings to be reported as be rich, thick descriptions (Patton, 2001). Qualitative investigations do not attempt to control for the context, but instead seek to describe it in-depth, so as to incorporate the context into deriving and explaining research findings (Patton, 2001) Below are the three key elements that define a qualitative research study and the applied forms each take in the investigation of a research problem. The Design. Naturalistic -- refers to studying real-world situations as they unfold naturally; nonmanipulative and noncontrolling; the researcher is open to whatever emerges [i.e., there is a lack of predetermined constraints on findings.

What is Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research

Introduction. Critiquing a qualitative research is fundamental to nursing research utilization and evidence based practice. The process of qualitative research is an intellectual activity which investigates human experiences in naturalistic settings, pursuing meanings that inform theory, practice and which will help one decide as to what extent research maybe useful in practice; to see if the. Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in the world. It consists of a set of interpretive, material practices that makes the world visible. These practices transform the world

Focus Rich thick descriptions, process & context driven Outcome oriented, controlled & experimental Methods Observation, focus groups, interviews Experiment, survey, questionnaire Questions What is X? How many Xs? Reasoning Inductive Deductive Sampling Method Theoretical Statistical. Exercise 1. Qualitative Research All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding - Donald Campbell. provide thick descriptions. Last, it is possible to gather in-depth meaning as participants usually reveal themselves in their stories.9 PURPOSE As indicated above, your research purpose and questions guide you to qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research designs. Patton (2002) used the following example, if you want to know how much a person weighs then you conduct a quantitative. Characteristics of Qualitative Observational Research. Qualitative observational research can be characterized by at least ten overlapping themes that researchers should be aware of when collecting and analyzing data. In Qualitative Evaluation Methods, Patton (1980) discusses these characteristics to help researchers design studies. These characteristics are explained below using examples. Reliability in quantitative research stems from statistical results that have consistency (Roberts & Priest, 2006). Multiple strategies can be used to ensure validity in qualitative research, such as triangulation, member checking, rich description, prolonged time in the field, and use of external auditors (Creswell, 2014; Creswell & Poth, 2018.

Thick Description - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

technique called thick description, qualitative studies often aim to include enough contextual information to provide readers with a sense of what it was like to have been in the research setting. Another technique that is often used is triangulation, with which a researcher uses multiple methods o Qualitative Research Methods . Qualitative data are not made out of numbers but rather of descriptions, metaphors, symbols, quotes, analysis, concepts, and characteristics. It uses interviews, written texts, art, photos, and other thick materials to make sense of human experiences and to understand what these experiences mean to people I What Qualitative Research? 1.1 Ethos of quantitative research 1. Measurement 2. Causality 3. (Statistical) generalization 4. Objectivity (vs. researcher's subjectivity)‏ 1.2 Ethos of qualitative research: Interpretivism 1. Emphasis on content (thick description) 2. Emphasis on process 3. Flexibility. Among qualitative researchers, this depth is often referred to as thick description (Geertz, 1973) [2]. Similarly, qualitative research can convey a sense of what it is actually like to be a member of a particular group or in a particular situation—what qualitative researchers often refer to as the lived experience of the research participants

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Thick Description - SAGE Research Method

  1. In-depth thick description, case examples, illustrations. Structured methods of researcher reflexivity (e.g., sending memos, field notes, diary, log books, journals, bracketing). Checks on the utility of findings in responding to the study problem (e.g., an evaluation of whether a solution worked)
  2. Thick description also involves an emic perspective, which demands description that includes the actors' interpretations and other social and/or cultural information (Davis, 1995, p. 434). Marshall and Rossman (1989, p. 145) note that transferability is the responsibility of the person seeking to apply the results of the study to a new context, that is, it is the responsibility of the reader.
  3. Less codified than quantitative research (less guidelines/directives) Thick description (Geerz, 1973a) encouraged - rich accounts of the details of a culture; Such descriptions can be viewed as a rich database for making judgements re. possible transferability ; Dependability. Lincoln and Guba suggest an auditing approach; Detailing of phases (problem formulation, selection of.
  4. He identifies eight procedures for verifying qualitative research findings and recommends that any research study employ at least two of these procedures: prolonged engagement and persistent observation; triangulation; peer review or debriefing; negative case analysis; clarification of researcher bias (reflexivity) member-checking; rich, thick description; external audits; In addition.
  5. Thick descriptions provide concrete detail about a phenomenon or concept. They are a necessity for research in the field. They provide strong visual images for the reader to conceptualize the context or concept. An example of thick description is: Ana is between 30 and 40. Her brown hair lies limp and greasy against her head. Her eyes tend not to focus on any one thing. Her skin is riddled.
  6. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a thick description or depth of understanding to complement breadth of.

Thick description Cecile Badenhors

  1. qualitative research (see introduction), sporadic attempts and a handful of approaches to conceptualize and apply generalization in research projects can be found in literature. In the following, this section will provide a discussion of existing literature that deals with the outcomes and types of generalization (table 1). Throughout the paper, the authors will refer to table 1 where.
  2. Qualitative researchers are as concerned as quantitative researchers with the quality of their samples, but they use different considerations in selecting study participants. The Logic of Qualitative Sampling. Quantitative researchers measure attributes and identify relationships in a population; they desire a representative sample so that findings can be generalized. The aim of most.
  3. Cho and Trent: Validity in qualitative research. constructed meanings from the emic or insider's worldview (Donmoyer, 2001: 190-1). Validity as a process in the thick description purpose is.
  4. Thick data, qualitative research methods and data logging. July 9, 2017 / miraclezc. Mind map. Thick data Tricia is one global tech ethnographer who talks about the concept of thick data through the case of Nokia. She has stay in China and research for Nokia, after she concludes that low-income consumers were ready to pay for more expensive smartphones, however, Nokia does not pay much.
  5. Recognise the key characteristics of qualitative research. 3. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative methods in research. 4. Describe qualitative research approaches (designs). 5. Describe methods of data collection and analysis in a qualitative study. 6. Discuss the linkages between selection of method and types of research questions. February 2021 2. LECTURE OUTLINE •Definition.
  6. e the transferability of the research to other compatible situations or environments. *An in-depth discussion of the Total Quality Framework can be found in.

What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research SpringerLin

  1. Part One: Thick Descriptions Of Qualitative Research Ethics Part Two: Qualitative Research Ethics By Technique Part Three: Ethics As Politics Part Four: Qualitative Research Ethics With Vulnerable Groups Part Five: Relational Research Ethics Part Six: Researching Digitally. This Handbook is a one-stop resource on qualitative research ethics across the social sciences that draws on the lessons.
  2. The Second Edition of 30 Essential Skills for the Qualitative Researcher provides practical, applied information for the novice qualitative researcher, addressing the how of conducting qualitative research in one brief guide.Author John W. Creswell and new co-author Johanna Creswell Báez draw on many examples from their own research experiences, sharing them throughout the book
  3. Thick description. The fourth foundation stone of qualitative methods is called thick description. Events, behavior, values and other considerations are described in great detail so as to capture and present all the nuance and context which helps one understand what is going on. When thick description is done well, it reads like a good novel. Except that it is non-fiction. This is too much for.

Brief Note on the Origins, Evolution, and Meaning of the

Although both the quantitative-Evidence based medicine and qualitative-narrative research have the same dignity from the scientific point of view, the extremism of some members of the scientific community stirs up the polarization of the research and the distance from the narrative method. It happens because the latter is often wrongly considered a non-scientific approach, and its results were. Qualitative research is an inquiry approach in which the inquirer: clarify researchers stance, thick description, prolonged time in the field Office of Qualitative & Mixed Methods Research, Universi . 44 Lets put it all together What topics are addressed in a proposal for a qualitative study? Introduction Statement of the problem (including literature) Purpose of the study Research.

(PDF) A Thick Description of Thick Descriptio

Thick descriptions - to make meaning clear Data collection methods Interviewing An interview is a two-way conversation where the interviewer asks questions to collect data and to learn about the ideas, beliefs, views, opinions, and behaviours of the participant Qualitative interviews allow you to see the world through the eyes of the participant. Qualitative interviews range from open. Designing Qualitative Research Catherine Marshall, Gretchen B. Rossman Limited preview - 2006. All Book Search results » About the author (2002) Michael Quinn Patton is an independent consultant with more than 40 years' experience conducting applied research and program evaluations. He lives in Minnesota, where, according to the state's poet laureate, Garrison Keillor, all the.

Appraising Qualitative Evidence Related to Patient Experiences

Below, we offer two examples of triangulation within research studies, providing a context for each study and a description of how triangulation was used and successfully implemented to ensure an in-depth and more unbiased set of findings. Example 1 . Johnson et al,s6 qualitative study aimed to identify system influences on decision making in a pre-hospital setting with paramedics. Several. To promote transferability, qualitative researchers can provide thick description of the data, setting, and participants (Lincoln & Guba, 1986). As just noted, providing this level of detail allows those who read your study to determine for themselves whether and to what degree your findings are transferable to other related settings. A great description of this process follows: To facilitate. Qualitative market research focuses on data trustworthiness rather than focusing on the data, which would be defined as quantitative research. Qualitative research is important because it measures things that numbers might not be able to define, qualitative methods sometimes identify trends before they show up in the quantitative data principles of qualitative research: ethics, validity and thick description qualitative research principles verstehen empathic understanding (weber) goal of mos

PPT - Reliability and Validity in Research PowerPoint

With the resurgence of qualitative methods, the suite of available qualitative tech-niques has expanded—in the framework of strong reliance on thick knowledge of. 5. Thick analysis in this sense is understood as related to, but distinct from, Coppedge's (1999)ideaof thick concepts, and Geertz's (1973) idea of thick description. 6. These. Creswell categorizes qualitative research in five classical traditions of inquiry: biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study [25]. These traditions are not mutually exclusive, and many researchers draw on multiple approaches, particularly in interdisciplinary fields like CSCW and HCI. Pinelle and Gutwin demonstrate that qualitative research was the predominant. Focus on research methods: Whatever happened to qualitative description? Research in Nursing and Health, 23, 334-340. 10.1002/1098-240X(200008)23:4<334::AID-NUR9>3..CO;2-G. Google Scholar; Sandelowski M. (2010). What's in a name? Qualitative description revisited. Research in Nursing & Health, 33, 77-84. 10.1002/nur.20362. Google Scholar; Scala E., Price C., Day J. (2016). An integrative.

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